Chronology from 1825 to 2014
This chronology is taken from Natalia Semenova’s catalogue “”The Collections of Mikhail and Ivan Morozov“”.
1825 – The freed serf Savva Vasilyevich Morozov I (1770-1860), founder of the textile factories in Bogorodosk, Tver and Moscow, becomes the owner in Moscow where he settles with his family on Nikolo-Iamskaya Street.
1840-1850 – 4 of Savva Morozov Premier’s sons enter the business. Yelisei Savvitch (1798-1868) opens his own factory which will become the Oirekhovo-Zuyevskaya Factory. Zakhar Savvitch founds the “Bogorodsko-Glukhodskoy Manufactures Company” with the help of his brother Abram Savvitch (1806-1856). Timofeï Savvitch takes over the management of the “Savva Morozov and Son Trading House“. The statutes of the Tver Factory were approved in 1859.
Representatives of 4 branches of the Morozov family.
Abram Abramovitch (left), Timofeï Savvitch, Ivan Zakharovitch and Vikul Iéliseïevitch.
1867 – Abram Abramovitch Morozov marries Varvara Alexeïevna Khloudova (1848-1917), the daughter of the industrialist Alexeï Ivanovitch Khoudlov (1818-1882)
Abram Abramovitch Morozov (1839-1882)
Varvara Alexeievna Khloudova (1848-1917)
1870, August 7th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Birth of Mikhail Abramovich Morozov (1870-1903), son of Abram Abramovich Morozov and his wife Varvara.
1871, November 27th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Birth of Ivan Abramovitch Morozov (1871-1921), second son of Abram Abramovitch Morozov and his wife Varvara.
1873, February 13th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Birth of Arsenï Abramovitch Morozov (1873-1908), third son of Abram Abramovitch Morozov and his wife Varvara.
Mikhaïl Abramovitch Morozov (1870-1903)
Ivan Abramovitch Morozov (1871-1921)
Arsenï Abramovitch Morozov (1873-1908)
1872 – Following a new division of Savva I’s estate, the Tver Cotton Mills are owned by Abram Abramovitch and David Abramovitch, sons of Abram Savvitch Morozov. The two brothers found the “Tver Manufacturers’ Society” of which Abram Abramovitch takes the direction. His uncle, Timofeï Savvitch, then devoted himself to the management of the “Society of the Nikolskaya Manufactory“.
1882, February 25 th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Abram Abramovitch dies at the age of 43 following a long illness. His widow, Varvara Alexeïevna takes over the management of the Tver Manufactures. She met Professor Vassili Mikhailovitch Sobolievski (1846-1913) who quickly became her companion.
Vassili Mikhaïlovitch Sobolievski (1846-1913)
Varvara Alexeievna Morozova (1848-1917)
1885 – Varvara Alexeievna Morozova buys the estate of the Dolgoruki Princes on Vozdvijenka Street and commissions the architect Roman Klein to design a neoclassical-style mansion. Her relationship with Vasily Sobolievski gave birth to two children: a son, Gleb (1886-post 1925) and a daughter, Natalia (1887-1971). Gleb and Natalia were named after the Morozovs but were always considered bastards, as they were born out of religious marriage. Indeed, Abram Abramovich Morozov’s will stipulated that his widow, Varvara, would be deprived of his inheritance and fortune if she remarried. Varvara Alexeievna and Vasily Mikhailovich were thus never able to enter into a legal union.
– It was at this time that the brothers Mikhail and Ivan Abramovitch Morozov went to study painting in Nikolai Martynov’s studio, then with the student of painting, Constantin Korovine and the landscape painter Iégor Khrouslov.
1887 – Opening of the A.A. Morozov Psychiatric Clinic in Moscow, on the Diévitchy field, for which his widow, Varvara Alexeïevna, made a donation of 150,000 roubles. Today the Psychiatric Clinic bears the name of H.H. Korsakov, who treated Abram Abramovitch Morozov and is the founder of the Moscow School of Psychiatry.
1888 – Mikhail Abramovitch Morozov completes high school and enters the Historical-Philological Faculty of Moscow University.
– Varvara Alexeyevna and her family move from Pereulok Dourny to their new private mansion at 14 Vozdvijenka Street on the other side of the Moscow River.
Varvara Alexeievna Morozova Mansion, 14 Vozdvijenka Street.
1890, summer – Mikhail Abramovich Morozov and his brother Ivan spent the summer of 1890 travelling through Russia (Moscow, Kazan, Odessa) with the landscape painter Iegor Khrouslov.
1891, April 29th – The French Exhibition of Art and Industry opens its doors in Moscow. It is the first time that works by Edgar Degas and Claude Monet are exhibited to the Russian public. “When we saw the first Claude Monet (from the “Grindstones” series) at the French art exhibition, we were completely taken aback by how new it was“, says Alexandre Benoît.
– It was also that year that the eldest of the Morozov brothers, Mikhail Abramovitch, came into possession of his inheritance.
– On November 10th (according to the old Julian calendar), Mikhail Abramovitch Morozov married Margarita Kirillovna Mamontova (1873-1958) and bought the K.S. Popov Tea Merchant’s Mansion at the corner of Smolensk Boulevard and Glazovsky Pereulok. Their union will give birth to 3 children: Georgi (1892-1918?), Elena (wife Klioutchkov, 1895-1951) and Mikhail (Mika, 1897-1952).
– For his part, Ivan Abramovitch Morozov entered the Polytechnic Faculty in Zurich, Switzerland. It was in spring that he bought his first painting at the 19th Ambulante Exhibition, a winter landscape by the painter Piotr Levtchenko (1856-1917).
Mikhail Abramovitch Morozov’s Private Mansion
Mikhaïl Abramovitch Morozov (1870-1903)
Margharita Kirillovna Morozova (1873-1958)
1893, August 15 (according to the old Julian calendar) – The Municipal Gallery of the brothers Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov opens its doors to the public after it was donated to the city in August 1892.
– Mikhail Abramovich Morozov completes his studies at the University and publishes, at his own expense and under the pseudonym “Mikhail Yuriyev“, historical studies: “Charles V and his time” (1893) and “Controversies of the historical science of Western Europe” (1894).
– Ivan Abramovitch Morozov, without ceasing to study in Zurich, continued his pictorial work and painted landscapes in oil in the open air.
– Arsenï Abramovitch Morozov does an internship in England in a production unit.
– Ambroise Vollard opens her gallery at 37 rue Lafitte in Paris.
– Claude Monet works on his series of “Rouen Cathedrals“.
1894, December – Mikhaïl Abramovitch Morozov, who begins to collect works of art, goes to the 14th Painting Exhibition of the Moscow Society of Art Lovers (MTKh) where he buys “Idylle Septentrionale” by Constantin Korovine. He buys “The Moscow Kremlin” and “The Cathedrals” directly from the artist Apollinarï Vasnetzov.
– Arseny Abramovich Morozov reaches his majority and receives a piece of land on Vozdvijenka Street as a gift from his mother Varvara. He commissions the architect V.A. Mazyrin to design a private mansion.
1895, spring – Ivan Abramovitch Morozov finishes his studies at the Polytechnic School of Zurich and returns to Tver where he takes the position of Director – Ordinator of the “Tver Manufacturers’ Society” until 1900 and then that of Chairman of the Board from 1900 to 1918. He began to attend exhibitions again and acquired “Before the Rain“, a landscape by Alexander Kisseliov at the 23rd Ambulatory Exhibition.
– It was at this time that Varvara Alexeievna Morozova financed the construction and equipment of the first free library in Russia: “The Ivan Sergeievitch Tourgueniev Reading Room” in Moscow.
– Paul Gauguin leaves for Tahiti.
– Paul Durand-Ruel exhibits nearly 50 paintings by Claude Monet, including the series of “Rouen Cathedrals“.
– Ambroise Vollard organises the first exhibition of Paul Cézanne’s paintings in his gallery.
First Library/Free Reading Room in Russia
“The Turgenev Reading Hall”.
1896 – Mikhail Abramovitch Morozov is elected head of the Dormition Cathedral in Moscow to which he makes generous donations. He was also elected Municipal Councillor of the City Duma until 1900. He published an autobiographical book “My Letters” under the pseudonym “Mikhail Yuryev“. During the 24th Ambulante Exhibition, he acquires a landscape by Isaac Levitan “A cool evening, the Volga“.
1896, November – The French Art Exhibition is held in Saint Petersburg. The works of Edgar Degas and Claude Monet are of particular interest, as are those of Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, presented for the first time in Russia. Reproductions of several of the paintings presented at the Exhibition were published in January 1897 in the magazine “Niva“. Igor Grabar’s article “Decadence or Renaissance” is published in the appendix, in which the author analyses the state of contemporary painting.
– Opening of the Exhibition of Paul Gauguin’s paintings in Ambroise Vollard’s Gallery.
1897 – Varvara Alexeievna Morozova decides to rent from her own funds a building to house the Pretchistenka Courts for Workers, Kurusovoi Pereulok in Moscow.
– The Tver factories had to face major strikes.
1897, October – Sergueï Diaghilev organises in Saint Petersburg, the “Scandinavian Exhibition“, the first European exhibition which brings together 298 works by Scandinavian artists. Fritz Thaulow’s landscape, bought by Savva Mamontov, will later be found in Mikhail Morozov’s collection.
1898 – Varvara Alexeievna Morozova releases funds for the “Institute of those who suffer from tumours” (Morozov Cancer Institute, today the Piotr Alexandrovitch Herzen Oncological Institute), in memory of her mother who died of cancer.
– Mikhaïl Morozov donated 30,000 roubles for the organisation of the Greek Sculpture Hall (Venus de Milo and Laocoon) of the Museum of Fine Arts being built in Moscow. He began to travel regularly in Europe, often accompanied by the painter Sergei Vinogradov.
– Ivan Morozov is elected President of the Assembly of Muscovite Merchants.
– At the Museum of the Baron Stieglitz School of Art in Saint Petersburg, the “Exhibition of Russian and Finnish Painters” opens.
– A new art magazine “Mir Iskousstva” (The World of Art) is published.
1899, January – The magazine “Mir Iskousstva” organizes the “International Artistic Exhibition of Paintings” at the Museum of the Baron Stieglitz School of Art. Mikhail Morozov buys a landscape by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, “Lake Rouovessi (River)“. Most of the paintings presented at this exhibition will later be found in the Morozov brothers’ collections.
– At the same time, in St. Petersburg, the “French Exhibition of Art and Industry” took place, organised by the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, with the support of the French government. Mikhail Morozov bought “The Last Supper” by Charles Cottet and his brother Ivan a drawing by François Guiguet “Cellist“.
1899, April-May – Mikhail Morozov visits the Salon of the National Society of Fine Arts where he buys “Wrestling” by Jean Veber.
– The Tver Manufactures face a second large-scale strike. Mikhail Morozov opposes the intention of his brother Ivan to open a tea room and theatre for the factory workers. The administration of the factory now refuses to pay aid to the victims of a work accident, aid which the workers had obtained following the strikes of 1885. Ivan Morozov then decided to leave Tver and move to Moscow.
– Mikhaïl Morozov bought a painting by Camille Corot “Verneuil’s Madonna” from Durand-Ruel. He bought 10 studies and sketches of his historical paintings from Vasily Surikov.
– The magazine “Mir Iskousstva” n°6 publishes an article by Alexandre Benoit on Impressionism: “Perplexity, bordering on horror, seizes all those who see the paintings of this school for the first time. Is it possible that sincere and impartial people can find, in this raging disorder of colours and lines, light and sunshine and life and subtle colourist charm and even poetry? It is only by educating oneself, by developing one’s taste and by penetrating more deeply into a work that disconcerts us, that we discover under the monstrous upper layer a divine spark that ignites enthusiasm in us“.
1900 – Ivan Abramovitch Morozov moved into the Private Mansion at 21 Pretchistenka Street in Moscow, which he bought from the widow of David Abramovitch Morozov (1843-1893), his father’s younger brother.
Pretchistenka street, Moscow (early 1900)
1900, March – At the sale of the Tavernier Collection, Durand-Ruel buys Édouard Manet’s “Guinguette” on behalf of Mikhaïl Morozov.
1900, April – The World’s Fair opens its doors in Paris. Numerous artists and personalities from the Russian art world visit it.
– Mikhaïl Morozov goes to Ambroise Vollard’s Gallery and buys a painting by Paul Gauguin “the Pirogue” which will be the first Gauguin imported into Russia.
– Mikhail Morozov buys a painting by Mikhail Vroubel “The Swan Czarina” for 800 francs.
1901, January – Third exhibition of paintings from the magazine “Mir Iskousstva” at the Academy of Fine Arts where Mikhail Morozov buys “A la Dacha” by Constantin Somov. Within the framework of this exhibition a posthumous retrospective of Isaac Levitan’s works is organised, Ivan Morozov had more than 30 of them in his collection.
1901, March – At the Van Gogh exhibition at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune in Paris, Mikhail buys “The Sea at Sainte Marie“: this landscape will be the first Van Gogh to be imported into Russia. He buys a second Gauguin “Landscape with 2 goats” from Vollard and, at the Salon of the National Society of Fine Arts, the extravagant “Spanish Dance” by Hermenegildo Anglada.
– Mikhaïl Morozov, who previously always stayed in Parisian hotels, decided to rent a flat at 72 rue Geoffroy de Abbé, near the Avenue de Wagram.
1901, December – After long hesitation, Mikhaïl Morozov decides to buy Albert Besnard’s scandalous painting “Féérie intime” which had impressed him so much at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts.
– In Moscow, the “Exhibition of 36 Artists” opened, organised by a group of artists from the city (Apollinari Vasnetsov, Sergueï Vinogradov, Vassili Pérépliotchikov) who decided to oppose the itinerant artists and, at the same time, to escape Diaghilev’s dictatorship. The aim of this new company is to organise independent exhibitions in Moscow. The brothers Mikhail and Ivan Morozov will be faithful buyers of the Moscow exhibition.
– Valentin Serov finishes the portrait of Mika Morozov, the youngest son of Marguarita and Mikhail Morozov.
– Ivan Morozov meets a young dancer/choirist from the restaurant Yar, Eudoxie Kladovchikova who used to sing under the name of Lozenbek.
Restaurant Yar, Moscou
Ivan Abramovitch Morozov
1902, March – In St. Petersburg the 4th exhibition of paintings of the magazine “Mir Iskousstva” opens with works by Serov, Korovine, Pasternak, Somov, Grabar, Maliavine, Benoit, Golovine and Vroubel’s masterpiece “The Devil Struck Down“. The exhibition then moves to Moscow in the “Halls of Passage“. Reproductions of a whole series of paintings from Mikhail Morozov’s collection are included in the catalogue, including Vroubel’s “The Fortune-teller” and “Twilight“.
1902, March 20th (according to the old Julian calendar) – Mikhail Morozov attends the first auction of works of art belonging to Savva Mamontov, where he buys “The Three Czarines of the Underground Kingdom” by Victor Vasnetsov.
1902, May 28th – Mikhail Morozov buys “Portrait of Jeanne Samary” by Auguste Renoir and “The Poppy Field” by Claude Monet from the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery for 19,000 francs. It was at this time that Edgar Degas’ pastel “Woman wiping herself” was probably purchased.
– Paintings by Charles Guerin, Pierre Bonnard, Maurice Denis and Louis Valtat appeared in Mikhail Morozov’s collection.
– Valentin Serov paints the ceremonial portrait of Mikhail standing in front of the fireplace in a room of his private mansion on Smolenski Boulevard for the sum of 1,000 roubles (2,800 francs).
Mika Mikhaïlovitch Morozov portrait by Valentin Serov
Mikhaïl Abramovitch Morozov portrait by Valentin Serov
1903, January 26th (according to the old Julian calendar) – The exhibition “Contemporary Art“, organised by Prince Sergei Shcherbatov and Vladimir Von Meck, opens in St. Petersburg.
Ivan Morozov buys “Confidences” and “In the Old Park” by Constatin Somov.
1903, April – At the “Salon des Indépendants” (20 March to 25 April), Mikhaïl Morozov buys a painting by Edvard Munch, “Nuit Blanche“, which will prove to be the only painting by the artist in Russian collections. At the Salon, works by Manguin, Matisse, Marquet, Signac, Friesz are also exhibited.
– Ivan Morozov went for the first time to the “Salon of the National Society of Fine Arts” where he bought “Coup de vent” by Lucien Simon and “Préparation à la corrida” by Ignacio Zulaoga.
1903, May 8th – Paul Gauguin dies on the island of Hiva Oa.
– The Bernheim-Jeune Gallery acquires at auction the “Portrait of Yvette Guilbert” by Toulouse-Lautrec for Mikhail Morozov.
– Back in Moscow, Ivan Morozov maintains a correspondence with Durand-Ruel concerning the purchase of a landscape by Alfred Sisley. The Parisian dealer agrees to lower the price and sells him “Gelée à Louveciennes” for the sum of 11,500 francs. It was from this first expensive acquisition that Ivan Morozov began to count the purchases of paintings by foreign artists.
1903, June – Durand-Ruel informs Mikhail Morozov that a painting by Stefan Bakalovitch and a drawing by Jean Louis Forain have been bought for him at an auction. Mikhail Morozov corresponds with the dealer about the purchase of works by Corot and Millet.
1903, July 24th (according to the old Julian calendar) – Birth of Eudoxie, daughter of Ivan Abramovitch Morozov and Eudoxie Sergueïevna Kladovchikova who died in Paris on December 27, 1974.
1903, September 22th (according to the old Julian calendar) – The state of health of Mikhail Morozov, who suffers from nephritis, deteriorates and a famous therapist, Professor Leiden, is brought from Berlin.
1903, October 12th (according to the old Julian calendar) – Mikhail Abramovich Morozov dies at the age of 33. An obituary signed by Sergei Diaghilev appears in the magazine “Mir Iskousstva“.
1903, October 31st– Opening in Paris of the first “Salon d’Automne” on the initiative of a group of painters: Rouault, Marquet, Vuillard, Carrière ….. A room is reserved for Paul Gauguin’s paintings (Gustave Fayet collection).
– The Galerie d’Ambroise Vollard presents a Paul Gauguin exhibition (50 paintings and 27 drawings).
1903, November – At the auction sale of Princess Maria Tenicheva in Saint Petersburg, Sergueï Vinogradov acquires for Ivan Morozov a landscape by Isaac Levitan “The Silence“.
1903, November 13th – Death of Camille Pissaro.
– Constantin Korovine makes a portrait of Ivan Abramovitch Morozov. Ivan’s collection will include about sixty works by the painter.
– The merger of “36 artists” and “Mir Iskousstva” will give birth to the “Union of Russian Artists” (1903-1924). The majority of the Russian works in Ivan Morozov’s collection were exhibited at the Union’s exhibitions.
1904, January 2nd – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Margarita Morozova gives birth to a daughter, Mary. Before his death, Mikhail Morozov had drawn up a will in which he bequeathed his entire estate to his wife. The widow Margarita Morozova leaves with her children for Switzerland. On 17 February 1910 (according to the old Julian calendar), Margarita Kirillovna Morozova informed the curator of the Tretyakov Gallery, Ilia Semionovitch Ostrukhov, of her intention to donate to him a large part of the Russian and foreign paintings from her late husband’s collection. On 2 March (according to the old Julian calendar) the Tretyakov Gallery officially takes possession of Margarita Morozova’s donation.
Margarita Morozova (left) with her children Yuri, Elena and Mika (from left to right), little Mary being born after the death of her father. In the background, the portrait of Mikhail by Valentin Serov.
1904, January 27th (according to the old Julian calendar) – Japan attacks the Russian fleet in the roadstead of Port-Arthur, triggering the Russo/Japanese war.
– The Tver factory receives a large order of sheets for the army, promising large profits.
1904, February 21st / March 24th – The “20th Salon des Indépendants” hosts a retrospective of Paul Cézanne.
– Eugène Druet opens his Gallery at 114 rue du Faubourg Saint Honoré in Paris.
1904, May 9th / June 4th – The Durand-Ruel Gallery exhibits Claude Monet’s London series, one of the artist’s last major series.
1904, June 1st / June 18th – Henri Matisse’s first solo exhibition in the Galerie Vollard. Paintings painted between 1897 and 1903 are presented there.
– Pablo Picasso settles at the “Bateau-Lavoir” in Montmartre (Paris). It is the beginning of his “pink” period.
1904, Autumn – Ivan Morozov visits the “Salon d’Automne” in Paris for the first time (October 15 to November 15). 1317 paintings and sculptures are exhibited there. 380 artists including Valtat, Van Dongen, Girieud, Kandinsky, Marquet, Matisse, Puy, Friesz ……. Some rooms are dedicated to Toulouse-Lautrec, Puvis de Chavannes or Redon. The beginning collector, Ivan Morozov, is particularly interested in the retrospective of Auguste Renoir and Paul Cézanne (42 works). He is accompanied by the painter Sergueïl Vinogradov, a friend of his late brother Mikhaïl, who takes on the role of adviser and consultant to Ivan. At the Durand-Ruel Gallery Ivan Morozov will acquire a “Portrait of Jeanne Samary” by Renoir and 2 landscapes by Sisley for the sum of 40,000 francs. At Vollard’s he buys a landscape by Camille Pissaro “Terres Labourées” and at Bernheim-Jeune “Dans la Chambre” by Vuillard.
Receipt from the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery to Ivan Morozov for the purchase of Vuillard’s painting “Dans la chambre” for the sum of 2,000 francs on 13 November.
Receipt from Vollard to Ivan Morozov for the purchase of Pissaro’s painting “Terres Labourées” for the sum of 1,800 francs -1904.
1905, January 1st – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Ivan Abramovitch is appointed “Industrial Advisor” by the Minister of Finance for his national commercial and industrial activities.
1905, January 9th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – “Bloody Sunday“, bloody repression of a popular demonstration on the Winter Palace square by the imperial army which will mark the beginning of the 1905 Revolution.
– Illegal meetings are organised in the houses of Marguarita and Varvara Morozov, political conferences are held there.
– The magazine “Iskousstvo” (“Art”) No. 2 publishes more than 20 reproductions of works of Western contemporary painting: Gauguin, Denis, Cézanne, Van Gogh, Vuillard, Carrière, Monet, Guérin, a significant part of which is in the collection of Sergey Ivanovich Shchukin.
– Dissolution of the Nabis group; its members, Denis, Vuillard, Bonnard and Roussel become Ivan Morozov’s favourite painters.
1905, April – At the “Salon des Indépendants“, Ivan Morozov buys works by little-known painters (Edmond Lempereur, Alfred Maurer, James Morrice, Roderic O’Conor), mainly small Parisian scenes.
1905, Autumn – At the 3rd “Salon d’Automne“, Matisse exhibits with a group of young painters (Manguin, Puy, Derain, Vlaminck, Valtat) that the critic Louis Vauxcelles ironically calls “fauves“. Fauvism was born. The cautious Ivan Morozov is not yet ready to buy the Fauvists, but it is precisely he who will build up an impressive collection of one of the first “isms” of the 20th century. For the moment his attention is turned, as before, to the impressionists. At Durand-Ruel he buys two more landscapes by Alfred Sisley.
– The architect Lev Kekushev begins the reconstruction of the Mansion on Pretchistenka Street with the removal of the Baroque mouldings from the ceremonial row of rooms on the first floor. In the large “Music Salon” the mezzanines are removed in order to increase the height of the ceiling up to 6 metres. A glass roof is installed on the roof to provide the lounge with natural light.
1905, December 7th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – A general political strike begins in Moscow which turns into an armed riot.
1906, February – The exhibition “Mir Iskousstva” (The Art World) opens in St. Petersburg with works by Moscow and St. Petersburg artists. Ivan Morozov buys “The Green Study“, a work by the young hopeful Boris Anisfeld.
1906, spring – Second private exhibition of Henri Matisse at the Druet Gallery (19 March/7 April).
– At the “Salon des Indépendants” 842 artists are represented, including Derain, Friesz, Manguin, Marquet, Valtat, Vlaminck, Puy, Matisse … Ivan Morozov buys “Printemps en Provence” by Paul Signac, “La Loge” by Tony Minartz and “La Source Sacrée en Guidel” by Maurice Denis. Ivan Morozov, having failed to buy a second work by Denis which he liked, went to the artist’s home in Saint-Germain en Laye where he commissioned a replica of “Landscape with Polyphemus” and reserved the unfinished canvas “Bacchus and Ariadne“.
– Ivan Morozov also goes to the exhibition of paintings by Claude Monet from the collection of the singer Jean-Baptiste Faure which takes place in the Durand-Ruel Gallery. The following year he bought 3 paintings from the catalogue.
1906, Autumn – The 4th “Salon d’Automne” opens its doors at the Grand Palais in Paris. 12 rooms of the Salon present an exhibition of Russian art, organised by Sergueïl Diaguilev. The French public discovers the history of Russian art from the painting of Icons of Ancient Russia to contemporary painting. Ivan Morozov, being one of the sponsors together with Vladimir Hirshmann, Sergei Botkin, Prince Vladimir Argoutinski-Dolgoruki and Vladimir Von Meck and being recognised as a great collector, is elected Honorary Member of the Autumn Salon and is decorated with the Legion of Honour. Among the works from Ivan Morozov’s collection presented at this exhibition: “Portrait of a Lady” by Victor Borissov-Moussatov, “The Chernomor Castle” by Alexander Golovin, “Coffee in Yalta” by Constantin Korovin … During the exhibition, Ivan Morozov buys “March Snow” by Igor Grabar and “Fête Galante” by Nikolai Milliotti.
– Ivan Morozov visits Baron Denys Cochin’s Mansion, where he admires the stained glass windows and panels by Maurice Denis. The Baron possesses a very large collection of works by Cézanne who became Ivan Morozov’s favourite painter.
Paris, Le Grand Palais.
1906, October 22nd – Paul Cézanne dies in Aix en Provence.
– Creation in Moscow of the magazine “Zolotoie Rouno” (The Golden Fleece) with a Symbolist tendency, edited by Nikolaï Riabouchinski.
1906, December 27th (according to the old Julian calendar) – At the first “Exhibition of the Union of Russian Artists” in Saint Petersburg, Ivan Morozov buys “Arabian Tale” by Boris Anisfeld, “In front of a White Statue“, “March Frost” and “Summer Night” by Nikolaï Krymov, landscapes by Piotr Petrovitchev and Mikhaïl Mechtchérine. On the same date an invoice of 200 rubles was issued for the purchase of Mikhail Larionov’s painting “Window” (we do not know where it is).
– Mikhail Abramovich Morozov’s vault-chapel designed by Apollinari Vasnetsov is built in the cemetery of the Pokrovsky Monastery.
Chapel-Caveau of Mikhail Abramovich Morozov
1907, January – Sergei Shchukin, dismayed by the sudden death of his wife, writes a will according to which his collection is to be bequeathed to the Tretyakov Gallery after his death.
1907, March 14th – When Georges Viau’s collection is dispersed, Durand-Ruel buys “Sous les arbres du Moulin de la Galette” by Auguste Renoir and “Eragny matin d’automne” by Camille Pissaro on behalf of his client, Ivan Morozov.
1907, spring – Exhibition of Maurice Vlaminck at the Galerie d’Ambroise Vollard.
– Dissolution of the group of fauvists.
1907, April 8/20th – Exhibition of Maurice Denis at the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery (45 paintings, 20 drawings).
1907, April 14th – Opening of the “Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts” where Maurice Denis exhibits “Polyphème” and “Bacchus et Ariane“, belonging to Ivan Morozov.
1907, April 29th – Ivan Morozov buys from Durand-Ruel “Coin de Jardin à Montgeron“, “Meule de foin à Giverny“, “Boulevard des Capucines” and “Le Pont de Waterloo” by Claude Monet.
1907, May 4th – At Vollard’s, Ivan Morozov buys his first paintings by Paul Gauguin “Conversation” and “Paysage aux Paons” as well as “Un Coin de Paris” and “Paysage en Dauphiné” by Pierre Bonnard.
– Picasso paints “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon“. Birth of Cubism.
– Arrival in Paris of the young Daniel-Henri Kahnweiler and opening of his small gallery at 27 rue Vignon. He banks on the Cubists and signs contracts with Derain, Picasso, Friesz and Braque.
– Ivan Morozov decides to order decorative panels from Maurice Denis for his Salon Musical. In a letter dated July 21st, the painter informs him that he intends to use “The History of Psyche” as the subject of the panels.
Palace of Arsenï Abramovitch Morozov.
1907, July 27th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Ivan Abramovich Morozov religiously marries Eudoxia Sergeevna Kladovchikova. Their affair had been kept secret for more than 3 years, as was the existence of their daughter who continues to remain . The newlyweds went on a honeymoon. They spend the month of August in Biarritz and then go to Paris in September.
1907, October – The “Salon d’Automne” organises a posthumous retrospective of Paul Cézanne’s works. Ivan Morozov buys for the first time paintings by the painter “Landscape of the Holy Victory Mountain” and “Still Life on the Curtain“.
– Ivan Morozov shows great interest in young artists of the Vollard Gallery; he buys “The Drying of the Sails” by André Derain, which is the beginning of the Fauvist landscape, as well as “Boats on the Seine” by Maurice Vlaminck and 5 paintings by Louis Valtat. According to the invoice of the Galerie Vollard of 5 October, the purchases amount to 45,000 francs.
1908, January 5th – At the 6th exhibition of the “Union of Russian Artists” Ivan Morozov buys a sketch by Nikolai Sapunov and “Village Fair” by Sergei Maliutin. He also buys several paintings from Vladimir Von Meck’s collection, including Vrubel’s unfinished canvas “Lilacs” and 3 studies by the painter.
1908, April – At the “Salon des Indépendants“, Ivan Morozov buys André Derain’s Fauvist work “Mountain Road“.
1908, April 29th – In a single day, Ivan Morozov goes to Vollard’s to buy paintings for 50,000 francs (Sergueï Chtchoukine, who had come to the gallery the day before, had spent three times less) including “Au pied de la Montagne“, “Femme au fruit” and “Fleurs de France” by Paul Gauguin as well as “L’Ouverture de Tannhäuser” by Paul Cézanne. On the same day, Vollard also sold him “La Jeune Fille à la Boule (or the acrobat with a ball)” by Pablo Picasso, whose name does not mean anything to the collector for the moment.
– Sergueï Chtchoukine takes Ivan Morozov to Henri Matisse’s studio on Boulevard des Invalides.
Reciepts from the Galerie Vollard to Ivan Morozov.
1908, May 16th – Eugène Druet buys for Ivan Morozov “Les Chaumières” by Vincent Van Gogh at a sale of contemporary paintings at the Hôtel Drouot.
– Nikolaï Riabouchinski organises the 1st “Golden Fleece Salon” in Moscow. Nearly 800 works by Russian and mainly French artists are presented at this exhibition. Already familiar with the work of Cézanne, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Redon and Signac, the Russian public will see works by Matisse, Derain, Friesz, Manguin, Puy, Valtat and many others for the first time. At the end of the Salon, Ivan Morozov buys “Le Café de Nuit” by Van Gogh and “Square à Paris” by Georges Dufresnoy.
1908, summer – Sergueï Ivanovitch Chtchoukine opens his gallery to those who wish to see his collection, 8 péréoulok Znamienski, on Sundays from 11am to 1pm, registration by phone.
1908, August – Ivan Morozov and his wife Eudoxie take a rest at the Karlsbad thermal baths (today’s Czech Republic).
1907. Ivan Morozov with friends (3rd from the left).
1907. Ivan Morozov with friends (standing in the centre).
1908, September 29 th – Second big purchase of paintings at the Vollard Gallery. Ivan Morozov buys “Le Grand Pin près d’Aix” by Cézanne, “La Grenouillère” by Renoir and “Bords de rivière (ou l’Etang à Montgeron)” by Monet for the sum of 45,000 francs.
– At the Galerie Durand-Ruel, he bought “La Jeune fille à l’Éventail” by Renoir.
– At the “Salon d’Automne” Maurice Denis exhibits a series of 5 panels of “L’Histoire de Psyché” painted for Ivan Morozov’s Mansion in Moscow.
– Henri Matisse exhibits the large still life “The Red Room” painted for Sergueï Chtchoukine.
– Ivan Morozov buys “La Glace du Cabinet de Toilette” by Pierre Bonnard, “Femme assise” by Henri Matisse as well as paintings by Friesz and Dufresnoy.
– At Vollard’s, Ivan Morozov buys “Café à Arles” and “le Grand Buddha” by Paul Gauguin.
Reciepts from the Galerie Vollard to Ivan Morozov.
1908, October 29th – Invited by Wilhelm Uhde, Ivan Morozov visits the gallery that the German art historian has just opened at 73 rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs in Paris where he acquires for 300 francs “Fleurs” and “Portrait” by Auguste Herbin.
1908, November – Ivan Morozov returns to Russia with 16 paintings. The years 1907 and 1908 are the most fruitful years of Ivan Morozov’s collection, he acquired more than 60 paintings.
– Ivan Morozov is elected President of the administration of the Forestry Society “Mugreevo-Spirovskoye“.
– Maurice Denis’ panels arrive in Moscow.
1908, December 24th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Arseni Abramovitch Morozov dies of septicaemia at the age of 35 in his Vlassievo Estate near Tver.
Arseni Abramovitch Morozov and his companion.
1909, January – Maurice Denis and his wife arrive in Moscow. While the couple is discovering the city, Ivan Morozov has to settle the problems related to the will of his younger brother, who has bequeathed to his mistress his mansion and a fortune of several millions.
– At Ivan Morozov’s request, Prince Sergei Shcherbatov and Vladimir Von Meck organise a rich cultural programme for the French guest, including a 2-day trip to St. Petersburg.
– Dissatisfied with the sharp colour of his panels, Denis spends some time repainting certain parts. Understanding that the 5 pictorial scenes were insufficient for a narrow room with a 6-metre high ceiling, he proposed to fill in the empty spaces and paint two horizontal panels and four vertical wood panelling. Ivan Morozov agrees with the painter’s proposal. The idea of completing the whole Musical Salon with sculptures and ceramic vases imposed itself on him. Denis advised him to order the sculptures from Maillol.
During the Exhibition “The Morozov brothers” held from 21/06/2019 to 06/10/2019 at the Hermitage Palace
in Saint Petersburg, the Music Salon of the Morozov Palace was recreated identically for the occasion.
1909, February – At the 6th “Exhibition of the Union of Russian Artists” Ivan Morozov buys “Peonies” and “Night Festival” by Nikolai Sapunov as well as “Apple Trees after the Rain” by Mikhail Larionov.
– The second “Golden Fleece Exhibition” is held in Moscow. Foreign Masters, Matisse, Derain, Van Dongen, Marquet, Rouault, Vlaminck, Friesz …. participate in it but they are much less numerous than during the first edition.
1909, March – Sergueï Chtchoukine informs Matisse that Ivan Morozov wishes to discuss with him his commission of paintings for his dining room. However, due to his wife’s health problems, Ivan Morozov does not go to Paris in the spring.
– At Othon Friesz’s exhibition in the Galerie Druet, Marthe Denis buys, at Ivan Morozov’s request, “Trees in Cassis” and “Snow in Munich“.
– Matisse signs his first contract with the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery, which receives exclusive rights to his works, except for large formats, and he moves with his family to Issy-les-Moulineaux in the Paris suburbs, where he builds a studio in the park.
– Ivan Morozov commissions two still lifes from Matisse.
– In Saint Petersburg, the publication of the art and literature magazine “Apollon” begins.
– Ivan Morozov buys “Festivity” by Boris Koustodiev. The previous year the painter had commissioned a replica of his painting “Fair“.
– The “Russian Seasons” organised by Sergei Diaghilev started in Paris.
1909, September 14th – Ivan Morozov buys “Bords de Marne” and “Autoportrait à la Casquette” by Cézanne from Durand-Ruel for 30,000 francs.
1909, October 2nd – Ivan Morozov buys 4 paintings by Cézanne from Vollard for 93,000 francs: “Flowers“, “La Montagne Sainte Geneviève“, “Baignade” and “le Fumeur“. In one year, the prices of Cézanne’s paintings almost doubled, however, the collector Ivan Morozov bought the works that seemed to him to represent the Master’s creation.
– Matisse was unable to finish the still lifes commissioned by Ivan Morozov and to show them at the “Salon d’Automne“.
– Sergei Shchukin bought his first Picasso, “Portrait with a Fan“.
1909, November – The 3rd “Salon de la Toison d’Or” takes place without French participation due to lack of funding. Mikhaïl Larionov, Natalia Gontcharova, Piotr Kontchalovski, Pavel Kouznetsov, Martiros Sarian stand out at this exhibition, some of whose works are already in Ivan Morozov’s collection.
– Sculptor Vladimir Izdebski, a native of Odessa, organised the first “International Salon“. For the first time works by contemporary artists are shown in the provinces (Odessa, Kiev, Riga). The majority of the French participants of the exhibition are present in the Morozov and Shchukin collections.
– Ivan Morozov is hanging up his paintings again and their number is growing.
1910, January – Ivan Morozov commissions Pierre Bonnard to paint a panel to embellish the grand staircase of his mansion, as well as two paintings on the subject of “Parisian Life“.
During the Exhibition “The Morozov brothers” held from 21/06/2019 to 06/10/2019 at the Hermitage Palace.
in Saint Petersburg, Pierre Bonnard’s triptych “the Mediterranean” which decorated the top of the Great Staircase of the Morozov Palace was recreated identically for the occasion.
1910, March 23th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Arrival in Moscow of Matisse’s long-awaited still lifes “Bronze and Fruits” and “Still Life with Dance” commissioned from the painter in early 1909.
1910, April 14th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Death in St. Petersburg of Mikhail Vrubel, one of the Morozov brothers’ favourite artists. Mikhail Morozov’s collection included 6 of his works, Ivan Morozov’s 27, mainly studies and sketches.
1910, May – Ivan Morozov acquires from Gustave Fayet “Nature Morte au Perroquet” painted by Paul Gauguin shortly before his death for the record sum of 27,000 francs.
1910, October 1st – Opening of the “Salon d’Automne“. On the recommendation of Valentin Serov, Ivan Morozov buys “Blue Plums” by Ilya Machkov (today called “Still Life, Fruit on a Dish“) and “Place du Village en Provence” by Auguste Chabaud.
– The panels “The Music” and “The Dance“, exhibited by Matisse at the Salon, were received so negatively by the public and the critics that Sergei Shchukin decided to give up the huge paintings with naked figures. However, on his return trip, he changed his mind and asked the painter to send the panels immediately to Moscow.
Henri Matisse’s “The Dance” (Collection of Sergei Shchukin) will be in the limelight on Monday 17 June 2019, for the opening of the exhibition of the Shchukin collection at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow, in the presence of Marina Lochak, director of the museum and André Marc Delocque-Fourcaud, grandson of Sergei Shchukin.
1910, November 11th – At Vollard’s, Ivan Morozov buys Cézanne’s “Blue Landscape” for the sum of 35,000 francs.
– He splits from the “Union of Russian Artists“. The artists of St Petersburg revive the “Mir Iskousstva” association.
-Valentin Serov paints a portrait of Ivan Morozov against the background of Henri Matisse’s still life “Bronze and Fruits“.
-Aristide Maillol finishes the statues “Pomona“, “Flora“, “Spring” and “Summer” for the Musical Salon of Ivan Morozov’s Palace.
1910, December 4th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Arrival in Moscow of the Matisse panels commissioned by Sergei Shchukin “Music” and “Dance“.
1910, December 10th – (according to the old Julian calendar) – Opening in Moscow of the 1st exhibition of the association “Boudnovy Valiet” (The Jack of Diamonds) organised by Mikhail Larionov, Piotr Kontchalovski, Ilya Machkov and other Russian artists. The works of some “Jack of Diamonds” artists are represented in Ivan Morozov’s collection: “Still Life” by Machkov, “Books” by Vasily Rojdestvienski or “Still Life” by Alexander Kuprin.
1911 – At the first exhibition of the “Mir Iskousstva” association Ivan Morozov acquires “Constantinople Street” by Martiros Sarian.
– Alexander Benedict, in one of his “letters of art” published in the newspaper “Rietch” states that it will take years for Russian society to “get used” to Moscow’s conceptions of the new painting.
1911, spring – Split among the participants of the “Jack of Diamonds” exhibition, Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova leave the association and form the “Osliny Khvost” (Donkey’s Tail) group.
– Ivan Morozov commissioned Matisse to write a new work, stressing that this time the commission was a family one. His beloved wife asks Matisse to paint a still life for her while he wishes for 2 landscapes.
1911, September – Eudoxie Morozova undergoes a major operation to repair a hernia. Ivan Morozov does not make his traditional trip to Paris in Autumn.
1911, October 23rd/November 9th – Henri Matisse’s triumphant visit to Moscow. The artist re-hung his paintings scattered in various rooms of Sergei Shchukin’s Mansion in the Znamiensky perego. Beginning of the whole “Rose Salon“.
1911, November – After having been exhibited at the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery and at the “Salon d’Automne” in Paris, the triptych “Mediterranean” executed by Pierre Bonnard for the staircase of Ivan Morozov’s Palace and the bronze statues “Pomone” and “Flore” by Maillol arrive in Moscow.
The “Matisse Hall” of the Troubetskoy Palace by Sergei Shchukin. The Shchukin collection includes, among others, 38 Matisse, 50 Picasso, 16 Gauguin ….
(these photos are the exclusive property of the Delocque-Fourcaud family).
1912, January – Opening in Saint Petersburg of the exhibition “One Hundred Years of French Painting” organized by the magazine “Apollon” and the “French Institute“, the largest of all the exhibitions in Russia devoted to Impressionism (nearly 1,000 works presented). The Russian Committee of the exhibition is made up of representatives of the Russian aristocracy, including Ivan Morozov. Among the masterpieces: “Un Bar aux Folies Bergères” by Manet and “Les Amoureux” by Renoir, as well as the “Féerie Intime” by Besnard, which had once belonged to Mikhail Morozov.
– Exhibition of paintings by the company “Le Valet de Carreau” where a group of French and German artists is invited to participate: Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, André Derain, Othon Friesz.
– In addition to the triptych “The Mediterranean“, Ivan Morozov commissions 2 panels from Pierre Bonnard on the theme of the “4 Seasons“. After discussions with the artist who considers this commission more laborious than the triptych, the price is set at 25,000 francs.
– Mikhaïl Larionov organises the exhibition of the “Queue d’Âne” in which Natalia Gontcharova, Alexandre Chevchenko, Kazimir Malévitch, Vladimir Tatline…., among others, participate. Ivan Morozov does not buy the extreme “avant-gardistes“, however his collection is very familiar to the most radical representatives of the Russian avant-garde.
1912, spring – The magazine “Apollon” (n°3-4) publishes an article by Sergeïl Makovski on the French collection of Ivan Abramovitch Morozov. The publication is accompanied by a complete catalogue and 52 reproductions of paintings (in black and white). This publication is a particularly important decision for Ivan Morozov, who jealously guards the access to his private mansion and his collection.
“Apollon” magazine, 1912.
1912, July/September – At the end of September, Matisse leaves for Morocco where he stays until mid-February 1913. During his stay in Tangier, he paints 3 paintings for Ivan Morozov which he brings together in what he calls the “Moroccan Tryptic“.
– Arrival in Moscow of Pierre Bonnard’s panels “Autumn” and “First Spring” that Ivan Morozov will hang at the top of his central staircase on both sides of the “Mediterranean“.
1912, December 18th – Picasso signs an exclusive 3-year contract with the Kahnweiler Gallery according to which he is not allowed to keep more than 5 paintings a year for himself; Ambroise Vollard does not appreciate the cubist manner of the painter, having given up the right to take care of the artist…
1913, January 3rd – An invoice for 70,000 francs from the Vollard Gallery arrives in Moscow.
1913, February 1st – Ivan Morozov buys Renoir’s last painting “Child with a Whip” from Vollard for 40,000 francs.
– At Kahnweiler’s, Ivan Morozov buys “Table et Fruits” by Derain and at Druet’s, 4 paintings by Marquet “Soleil sur Paris“, “Quai du Louvre“, “Paris en Hiver, Quai Bourbon” and “la Baie de Naples“.
Reciepts from the Galerie Vollard.
1913, March/April – In Moscow the 3rd exhibition of “The Jack of Diamonds” is held. Among the French participants: Braque, Derain, Vlaminck, Picasso.
– Ivan Morozov acquires Picasso’s cubist painting “Portrait of Ambroise Vollard“, an unexpected purchase from the collector who had ignored cubism, unlike Sergei Shchukin.
1913, April – Exhibition of Moroccan paintings and sculptures by Maillol from the collection of Ivan Morozov in the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery. Three works by Matisse from the collection are exhibited: “View from the Window in Tangier“, “Zorah on the Terrace” and “The Gate of the Kasbah” which will arrive in Moscow on July 14, 1913.
– Matisse hopes to see Ivan Morozov at home in his studio to offer him, as a counterpart to the Moroccan triptych, paintings painted in Tangier, including “Café Arabe“, the most important work of the Moroccan series. Morozov pays no attention to this invitation and it is Sergei Shchukin who acquires the painting.
1913, September 29th (according to the old Julian calendar) – Opening of Natalia Goncharova’s personal exhibition (more than 700 works) in the Art Salon of Klavdiya Mikhailova, Bolshaya Dmitrovka Street in Moscow. Ivan Morozov buys “Winter” and “Orchard in Autumn“.
1913, October 18th – Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler buys from Gertrude Stein, who shared her collection with her brother, three works by Picasso, among which a masterpiece from the pink period “Young Acrobat on the Ball” which the dealer sells to Ivan Morozov on October 25 for the sum of 16,000 francs.
1913, October 27th – Ivan Morozov buys his last painting, the 13th, by Pierre Bonnard from Druet. On the canvas “Summer in Normandy” is engraved the idyll of the penultimate peaceful summer, as well as paintings by French artists that Russian collectors will no longer be able to buy.
1914, January – The profits of the Tver Cotton Factory amount to 1,705,312 rubles for the year 1912/1913. The basic capital was 12,000,000 rubles.
– At the 11th exhibition of the “Union of Russian Artists“, Ivan Morozov acquires two sculptures by Sergei Konenkov “Torso” and “Young Girl“.
1914, August 1st – Germany declares war on Russia and on 3rd August on France, where mobilisation is already taking place. The following day, the German armies invade Belgium and the First World War begins, in which 38 states will participate. The capital of Russia, Saint Petersburg, changes its name to Petrograd.
– Margarita Kirilovna Morozova, who had moved to the Pereulok Miortvy Mansion, opens a hospital in a house belonging to her on Novinsky Boulevard.
1914, December – Ivan Abramovich Morozov officially donates the property of his Palace on Pretchistenka Street to his wife Eudoxie.
Façade of the former Morozov Palace. 1920.
Country house of the Morozov family (family archive).
1915, March – The exhibition of paintings “Year 1915” is organised at the Klavdia Mikhailova Art Salon in Moscow. Believing in the future of the young Marc Chagall, whom Jacob Tugendhold calls “the hope of Russian art“, Ivan Morozov acquires “The Hairdressing Salon” for 100 roubles. Morozov and Jacob Kagan-Chabchaï become the first Russian buyers of the artist’s works. Alexander Kuprin’s “Still Life with Blue Tray” is also bought at this exhibition.
1915, October – The Tver Factory obtains an order from the army for 4,955,000 archines (1=0.7112 m) of fabrics and 10,000 cylinders for grenades.
1916, January – At the “Mir Iskousstva” painting exhibition, Ivan Morozov buys “La Cineraria” by Piotr Kontchalovski and a “Still Life” by Ilya Machkov.
1916, April – Ivan Morozov’s “A House in Liozna” and “David and his Mandolin” by Marc Chagall are presented at the exhibition of the Artistic Office of Nadezhda Dobychina.
– At the exhibition of the artist Sergei Konenkov held in his studio on Presnia Street Ivan Morozov buys the sculpture “On your knees” (wood).
– Eudoxie Morozov is welcomed among the shareholders of the Tver Factory.
– Ivan Morozov becomes one of the founders of the “Koksobenzol” joint-stock company and the Moscow Bank of the Riabushinsky brothers.
1916, December – Ivan Morozov buys “Sevastopol“, “Twilight“, “The Haven of Sevastopol” and a “Still Life” by Constantin Korovin at the 14th exhibition of the “Union of Russian Artists“.
– 17,800 people work in the Tver Factory. Its spinning mill processes nearly 600,000 powders (1=16.38 kg) of cotton, its output is more than a million powders of ready-made yarn. The calico factory produces more than 80 million metres of fabric per year.
1917, January 3rd (according to the old Julian calendar) – The insurable value of Ivan Morozov’s collection is set at 560,000 rubles.
1917, February – February Revolution, dissolution of the Duma.
1917, April – Ivan Morozov buys his fourth painting by Marc Chagall “View from the Window” for 300 roubles at the Exhibition of Jewish Artists organised at the Lemercier Gallery.
1917, September 4th (according to the old Julian calendar) – Death of Varvara Alexeevna Morozova. In accordance with his will, the shares belonging to him (worth 3.5 million rubles) are to be sold and the funds obtained invested in state securities deposited at the National Bank. The Tver Factory Company is to “use them to improve the living conditions of the factory workers and to build houses and dormitories for them”. Varvara Morozova’s wishes will not be respected.
“In 1920, the old Morozov Palace became “the Second Museum of Modern Western Art”.
However, nothing has been changed, from the place of the canvases to the carpet on the floor.
1917, October 25th (November 7) – October Revolution. The Bolsheviks seize power.
1917, October 26th – The People’s Commissariat for Education (the Narkompros) is established by a decree of the II All-Russian Congress of the Soviets.
1917, November 3rd – The Commission for the Protection of the Artistic and Architectural Heritage of the Narkompros is established in Moscow.
1917, end of December – Ivan Morozov buys landscapes by Manuil Aladjalov and Sergei Vinogradov at the exhibition of the Union of Russian Artists inaugurated in Moscow.
1918, March – Most owners of art collections receive “conservatory deeds” allowing them to continue to live in a part of their “Palace” with their collection, which must however be accessible to all citizens.
1918, April 27th – Decree of the Council of People’s Commissars (Sovnarkom) “On the abolition of the right of succession”.
1918, May 28th – The Section for Museum Affairs and the Protection of the Artistic and Architectural Heritage is set up within the Narkompros. Forced alienation of buildings of a certain value in favour of the Soviet power.
1918, June 25th – Ivan Morozov buys his last painting by Constantin Korovin “Night-time fire by a river” for 60,000 roubles (present location unknown).
1918, June 28th – Decree “On the nationalisation of large-scale industrial enterprises”. The Tver Manufacturing Company, whose real estate value is estimated at 26 million rubles, is nationalized. The keys to the safes and the accounting books are handed over to a representative of the workers. The house at 9 Varvarka Street belonging to the Company’s Board of Directors is requisitioned.
1918, 13 July – Decree “On the confiscation of the property of the dethroned Russian Emperor and members of the Imperial Household”. Nationalisation of all property, without exception, of the family of the Tsar.
“Van Gogh Hall”. 1920, Second Museum of Modern Western Painting.
1918, July 15th – Assassination of the family of Tsar Nicholas II in Ekaterinburg.
The Imperial Family.
1918, July 20th – Several paintings belonging to the collection of Ivan Morozov are stolen from the Polushkino estate belonging to the sons of Vikula Iélisséïevitch Morozov.
1918, end of August – Sergei Ivanovich Shchukin leaves Moscow with his eldest son Ivan to join his wife and younger daughter Irina. In Germany the family is waiting for permission to enter France. Correspondence and the settlement of formalities last until February 1919.
1918, September 19th – Decree “On the prohibition of taking out and selling abroad objects of particular artistic and historical value”.
1918, September 22nd – Decree qualifying all those who did not return from their dachas as fugitives, their property to be confiscated.
1918, October 5th – Decree “On the registration, inventory and protection of monuments of art and architecture in the possession of individuals, companies and institutions”.
1918, November 18th – Decree “On the Nationalization of the Art Gallery of S.I. Shchukin”.
– Decree “On the confiscation of investment properties and the handing over of private mansions to public establishments”. The ground floor of Ivan Morozov’s private mansion is allocated to the Military Constabulary hostel.
1918, December 19th – Decree “On the nationalisation of the art collections of I.A. Morozov, I.S. Ostroukhov and A.V. Morozov”. The Museums Department sends two leading specialists in modern art, Jacob Tugendhold and Boris Chernovovits, to Pretchistenka Street. Tugendhold began to list the Russian part of the collection, but it was very quickly transferred to the gallery of Sergei Shchukin. Tchernovets, for his part, continued the description of the Morozov collection, with the assistance of its former owner.
1919, February – First conference in Petrograd devoted to museums. P. Muratov proclaims that Moscow has a unique opportunity to create a museum of Western art. Creation of the Commission for the creation of the Museum of Western Art.
1919, April 11th – The Morozov Collection and the Palace that houses it become the “Second Museum of New Western Painting“. Boris Tchernovets is appointed curator of the gallery, Ivan Morozov becomes his assistant.
1919, April 14th – The building steward orders the Morozov family to move into the three rooms on the ground floor allocated to them.
1919, late April – early May – Ivan Morozov leaves Moscow for Petrograd with his wife and daughter.
1919, May 1st – The Second Museum of New Western Painting (the former Ivan Morozov’s Palace and the collection it houses) opens to the public.
1919, June – A search is ordered at 21 Pretchistenka Street (Ivan Morozov’s former mansion); the seals on the armoured storeroom and the safes containing some of the works are found intact.
– The collections of S.I. Shchukin and I.A. Morozov are now called the First and Second Departments of the Museum of New Western Painting respectively. Boris Chernovets is appointed curator and then head of the Second Department of this Museum (former Morozov collection).
1919, June 28th – End of the First World War. Signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
1919, Summer – The Morozov family illegally crosses the border into Finland.
1920, May – In Switzerland, Ivan Morozov gives an interview to Félix Fénéon for the “Bulletin de la Vie Artistique”.
1920, August 15th – Opening to the public of the First Department of the Museum of New Western Painting (former Shchukin collection).
1920, November 19th – Decree of “confiscation of all movable property of persons who have left the territory of the Republic or are hiding until now”, i.e. emigrants and assimilated persons.
1920, end of the year – The Morozov family travels to London, where almost 30,000 pounds belonging to the “Tver Factory Society” are deposited in bank accounts.
1921, March 8th-16th – 10th Congress of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Russia. Declaration of the New Economic Policy (NEP).
1921, April 18th – Ivan Morozov draws up his will at his lawyer’s office in Paris, in which all his movable and immovable property is bequeathed to his wife.
1921, end of May – The Morozov family leaves for the seaside resort of Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary, now the Czech Republic).
Will of Ivan Abramovich Morozov (family archive).
1921, July 22nd – At 11 o’clock in the morning, Ivan Abramovitch Morozov dies of a myocardial infarction at the age of 49. He is buried in the Carlsbad cemetery (Karlovy Vary). His long-forgotten grave will not be rediscovered until 2012. The newspapers of Russian emigration to Paris Obcheïé Délo (The Common Cause) and Poslednié novosti (The Latest News), as well as the Berlin Roul (The Rudder) announce the death of I.A. Morozov. B.N. Chernovets publishes his obituary in the November issue of the Moscow magazine “Among Collectors“, under the heading “Collectors and Antique Dealers of the Past“, mistakenly mentioning the month of June as the month of his death.
Death certificate of Ivan Abramovich Morozov, 22 July 1921, Carlsbad.
As indicated on this document, a provisional burial took place on July 26th in anticipation of transport.
It is likely that repatriation of the coffin to Paris was not possible due to the journey and the heat of the summer.
The grave was only found in a cemetery in Carlsbad in 2012 after many years of research by Natalia Semenova.
1922, January 20th – The young Eudoxie Morozov, aged 18, marries Serge Konovalov (1899, Moscow / 1982, Oxford), son of Alexander Ivanovich Konovalov (1875, Moscow / 1949, Paris), a great Russian entrepreneur, member of the State Duma, who in 1917 held the post of Minister of Trade and Industry in the Provisional Government of Russia.
Eudoxie Ivanovna Morozova (July 24th, 1903 / December 24th, 1974)
Daughter of Ivan Abramovitch Morozov and Eudoxie Sergeevna Morozova.
(photo from the family archive)
Serge Alexandrovitch Konovaloff (October 31st, 1899 / February 12th, 1982)
Son of Alexander Ivanovich Konovaloff and Nadezhda Vtorova.
(photo from the family archive)
1922, January 25th – The religious marriage is celebrated in the Orthodox Cathedral of Saint Alexander Nevski in the rue Daru in Paris. After the wedding Eudoxie breaks all contact with his mother.
Religious marriage certificate of Eudoxie Morozova and Serge Konovaloff.
1922, December – Eudoxie and Sergei Konovalov have a son named Ivan, in honour of his grandfather (Ivan/Jean Konovalov, 10 December 1922, Bonn / 30 January 2002, Paris). The couple divorced at the end of 1937. Sergei Konovalov left for England and became professor of Russian language and literature at the University of Birmingham and, from 1945, at the University of Oxford.
1923, March – The First (former Shchukin collection) and Second (former Morozov collection) departments of the National Museum of New Western Painting are administratively merged and become the National Museum of New Western Art, the GMNZI, of which Boris Chernovets is appointed director. The French section of the Morozov department, consisting of the collections of Mikhail and Ivan Morozov, comprises 252 units (including 202 pictorial works, 39 sculptures and 11 ceramic objects).
1924, October 24th – Establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and France.
1925 – The Russian section of the Morozov Department of the GMNZI, which at that time included 318 works by Russian artists (including six sculptures) and offered the opportunity to compare the main trends in the development of French modern art and Russian painting, is transferred to the Tretyakov National Gallery.
– The management of the GMNZI is trying to preserve some of the works in the collection, including the portrait of Ivan Morozov painted by Serov. The Scientific Council also requests to leave the works of Marc Chagall, an artist inspired by Western masters, to the Museum, but this request is rejected.
– The GMNZI is selling decorative objects from Ivan Morozov’s former mansion (carpets, vases, and the Schröder grand piano from the music salon). The luxurious chandeliers and furniture will be sold in the 1930s.
– Various organisations regularly try to appropriate the premises occupied by the Morozov Department of the GMNZI. Piotr Kontchalovsky, speaking on behalf of the artists who were members of the associations “The Jack of Diamonds“, “Mir Iskousstva” and “The Moscow Painters“, sent a letter to L.B. Kamenev, President of the Moscow City Council, defending the Morozov Department: “The transfer of the Museum, inevitable in the event of the private mansion being allocated to another cultural establishment, will sound its death knell”.
Ivan Abramovitch Morozov portrait by Valentin Serov.
Ivan Abramovitch Morozov portrait by Constantin Korovine.
1926 – A maternity hospital wants to move into the premises of Morozov’s private mansion; thanks to the intervention of the People’s Commissioner for Foreign Affairs Georgy Chichcherin, the collection remains in place.
1928, January 28th – The Council of People’s Commissars (Sovnarkom) orders “an increase in the volume of exports of works of art and antiques, including museum pieces”.
1928, February 24th – The GMNZI is ordered to immediately proceed with the inventory and selection of objects that may be exported.
1928, March – Decision on the move of the Porcelain Museum to the mansion of S.I. Shchukin.
1928, October 24th – Decision on the merger of the two departments of the GMNZI on the same premises.
1928, November/December – Beginning of the transfer of the collections of the First National Museum of New Western Art to Ivan Morozov’s former mansion at 21 Kropotkin Street. The Unified National Museum of New Western Art is created on the basis of the two collections.
1929, December – Completion of the work on the new exhibition of the GMNZI “according to historical and artistic principles”.
– Publication of the first (and last) GMNZI catalogue; the names of the former owners of the collections are replaced by the initials “M” (Morozov) and “Shch” (Shchukin).
– The Military Academy of the Red Army of Workers and Peasants wants to move into the mansion on Kropotkin Street. The People’s Commissioner for Education of the RSFSR A.S. Boubnov intervenes in favour of the GMNZI, demanding that “the quotas currently set for the museum network be stopped”.
1930 / 1931 – Exchange of paintings between the GMNZI and the Hermitage Museum. The latter obtains 19th – early 20th century paintings, and the Museum of Fine Arts obtains the paintings of the old masters from the Hermitage.
– In 1931 the GMNZI twice handed over paintings from its collection to the Hermitage Museum in Leningrad (43 works in the first lot and 36 in the second). As a result of these operations, Matisse’s “Moroccan Triptych” was divided between Moscow and Leningrad.
– Start of the confiscation of paintings from the GMNZI collection for export. The first list includes works by Bonnard, Vuillard and Henri Matisse from the former collection of Ivan Morozov.
1932, April – Order of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) “On the reorganization of artistic and literary establishments”. Liquidation of all companies and associations. Active expropriation of works from the collection of the GMNZIl for export purposes; employees are forced to take down several paintings exhibited in the Museum’s rooms.
– Two issues of the magazine Creative Art publish a detailed analysis of the GMNZI collection, accompanied by numerous reproductions.
– The Museum of Fine Arts becomes the Museum of Fine Arts (in 1937 it takes the name of Alexander Pushkin).
1933, May – The People’s Commissar for Education A.S. Boubnov asks the Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars Viatcheslav Molotov to reconsider the decision of the Museum of New Western Painting to hand over Van Gogh’s “The Night Café” and Paul Cézanne’s “The Portrait of Madame Cézanne” to the “Antikvariat” company, as their value is considerably underestimated, but the decision to sell these paintings remains in force.
– The American collector Steven Clark acquires, through the New York gallery Knoedler, four paintings for the sum of $260,000. The former Morozov Department was thus forced to part with Cézanne’s “Portrait of Madame Cézanne” and Van Gogh’s “Café de nuit“, as well as Degas’ “Singer in Green“, which belonged to Prince Sergei Shcherbatov, and Renoir’s “A Waitress at the Duval Restaurant“, formerly owned by Mikhail Riabouchinski.
1933, September 20th – Drawing up of the list for the third presentation of paintings for export, including works from Ivan Morozov’s collection in the storerooms (Guérin, Bonnard, Denis, Valtat, Friesz, Marquet, Derain, and one of Matisse’s early still lifes). The paintings intended for sale abroad are sent to export depots of the All-Russian Society “Antikvariat“.
1933, November 16th – Establishment of diplomatic relations between Russia and the United States.
1934 – Sales of works of art abroad are stopped, yet unsold works from the GMNZI collection are not returned to it; 39 works by French artists belonging to the paintings withdrawn for export in the years 1931-1933 are found in the Hermitage Museum. For two years Boris Tchernovets has been requesting the return of the nine most important works. In the end, the GMNZI only recovered “The Plain at the foot of Mount Sainte-Victoire” by Cézanne from the former collection of Ivan Morozov.
1936, January 10th – Sergei Ivanovich Shchukin dies in Paris at the age of 81.
1936, June – The Tretyakov Gallery picks up and deposits in its reserves works by Russian avant-garde artists; in autumn works by the artists of the “Blue Rose” and the “Mir Iskousstva” are added to the collection.
1938, January 1st – Boris Chernovets is dismissed as director of the GMNZI. He learns of his dismissal from the museum, which he had directed for 15 years, from the press.
– Most of the “formalist” works are taken down from the GMNZI’s picture rails.
1939, September 1st – Nazi Germany attacks Poland. Beginning of the Second World War.
– The ground floor of Morozov’s mansion is emptied of its tenants and given to the GMNZI to expand its exhibition space.
– Pavel Korine begins the restoration of the panel Histoire de Psyché by Maurice Denis, which for many years was concealed by a wall cloth on which were hung the panels “La Danse” and “La Musique” by Matisse.
1941, June 22nd – Beginning of the Great Patriotic War. GMNZI, the building is damaged by bombing.
Ivan Morozov’s “Music Room” in the Palace, the walls of which were decorated with Maurice Denis’ “History of Psyche”. 1940.
1941, July / August – Evacuation of the collections to Novosibirsk. The boxes containing the works are kept in the building of the city’s Opera Theatre.
1944, November – The works belonging to the National Museum of New Western Art return to Moscow. As the Museum building is being renovated, it is not possible to hang them in the halls, and the crates are sent to the Museum of Oriental Cultures, where they remain unpacked for more than three years.
1945, May 8th – End of the Second World War. Germany surrenders on 9 May. Japan will do so on September 2nd. The USSR is among the victors.
1947, August 5th – The All-Russian Academy of Arts is transformed into the USSR Academy of Fine Arts.
– Its first president, the artist Aleksandr Gerasimov, proposes to locate the headquarters of the Academy in the GMNZI building (Ivan Morozov’s former mansion).
1948, end of January – The GMNZI staff are ordered to “present the museum exhibition” within 24 hours to the government commission headed by Kliment Voroshilov, vice-president of the USSR Council of Ministers.
1948, March 6th – Order of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of “the liquidation of the National Museum of New Western Art”. Creation of a liquidation commission. The transfer of the “most precious works” to the Museum of Fine Arts is to be carried out within 15 days; the transfer to the Academy of Fine Arts of the mansion, with all the movable property and equipment, within 10 days.
– Thanks to the intervention of the Director of the Hermitage Museum I.A. Orbeli, the collections are divided between the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the Hermitage Museum. Both institutions store the works in their reserves.
– As a result of this division, several “pairs” of the Morozov collection were separated, including for example “Rusel’s Country Festivals“, “The Triumph of Ceres” remained in Moscow, while “The Triumph of Bacchus” was sent to the Hermitage Museum.
1949, January 5th – A session of the Academy of Sciences meeting in Leningrad calls for the fight against “servility to the West” and demands the strengthening of the primacy of the work of Russian researchers in science.
1949, March 6th – Pravda publishes Vladimir Kemenov’s article “Formalist Elucubrations in Painting“. “Formalism is unacceptable to us from an ideological and political point of view, moreover, it is unquestionably contrary to the very spirit of art. The images created by the formalists are anti-artistic because they scandalously and irresponsibly distort nature and our socialist reality”.
1949, December 21st – An exhibition of the gifts given to Comrade Stalin is inaugurated on the premises of the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. On this occasion all the pieces of the Museum’s collection are removed from its rooms.
1953, December – Impressionist works (Renoir, Monet, Degas) are shown for the first time in the Pushkin Art Museum.
1955 – The exhibition “French Art of the 15th – 20th Centuries in the Museums of the USSR” is opened at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts.
– The “thaw” brings back to the museum rooms the paintings stored in the reserves, but the names of the collectors thanks to whom these masterpieces of French artists are in Russia are still not mentioned.
1956, summer – The exhibitions “French painting of the 19th century” (Moscow) and “French art of the 12th – 20th centuries” (Leningrad) allow the Russian public to discover many paintings by French Impressionists and Post-Impressionists.
1962 – The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts opens its permanent exhibition enriched with reserves. Part of the collection of Western modern art (up to Matisse) is presented in two rooms on the ground floor.
– The Hermitage Museum is also expanding its exhibition of French art of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
1968 – Matisse’s “Gate of the Kasbah” (the right part of the “Moroccan Triptych” separated in 1931 when works were shared between the Museum of New Western Art and the Hermitage Museum) returns from Leningrad to Moscow.
1974 – Impressive enlargement of the exhibition of 19th and early 20th century art on the first floor of the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. It will remain there until 2006.
1981 – The famous exhibition “Moscow-Paris” (Moscow) presents for the first time the Russian and French avant-garde. Two panels by Maurice Denis from the cycle “History of Psyche” and Picasso’s “Portrait of Vollard” are shown to the public. Ivan Morozov’s name as the former owner of these works appears for the first time in the exhibition catalogue.
1993, September – The exhibition “Russian Collectors Morozov and Shchukin: from Monet to Picasso” opens in Essen. Ivan Morozov’s collection is represented by 39 works, Mikhail’s collection is represented by 2 paintings.
– This exhibition dedicated to collectors of modern art is then shown at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and then at the Hermitage Museum.
– This cultural event devoted to collecting as an artistic activity is a first of its kind.
2006 – Inauguration at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts of the Gallery of Art of European and American Countries of the 19th – 20th Centuries. For the first time after the liquidation of the Museum of New Western Art the collection is presented in a building dedicated to it.
2014 – Inauguration of the Memorial Gallery of Sergei Shchukin and the Morozov brothers in the Palace of the General Staff (St. Petersburg Palace Square) of the Hermitage Museum. Cartels mentioning the works belonging to Moscow collectors appear in the rooms of the Gallery of Art of European and American Countries of the 19th – 20th Centuries of the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts.